The Dinosaurs of Jurassic World Are Both Male and Female, and They’re Breeding

When John Hammond dreamed up the idea of Jurassic Park in the later years of the 20th century, he thought he had control of the future. “We control their chromosomes, it’s really not that difficult,” Dr. Henry Wu (Hammond’s ‘Chief Geneticist’), proudly proclaimed, going on to mock Dr. Malcolm “You’re implying that a group comprised entirely of females will…breed?” Little did he or John Hammond know what lack of control they truly had on this expansive and ultimately impossible idea. Sure, Jurassic World boasted roughly 10 years of control over these animals – but – “You never had control. That’s the illusion.”

In the beginning of the franchise, we’re told that all the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park are female. This is because, as Wu says, “all vertebrate embryos are inherently female, anyway. They just require an extra hormone given at the right developmental stage to make them male. We simply deny them that.”, ultimately displaying the ignorance and arrogance Jurassic Park is showcasing. Hammond and his team of scientists were trying to force nature into what would end up being a very unnatural state. “Life finds a way,” as Dr. Malcolm puts it, nature fights back, and he is proven correct.

As you know, later in the film, Dr. Grant and the kids come across velociraptor eggs. Eggs mean reproduction. In vertebrate species, reproduction typically means males and females (though in certain scenarios with some vertebrates asexual reproduction is possible). However, as we discovered that from the very start, there always have been both males and females in Jurassic Park, though they’re not always distinguishable via sexual dimorphism. The Lost World confirms the dinosaurs are reproducing sexually, distinguishing the sexes of the animals with the Tyrannosaurs and Velociraptors. We’re introduced to the fact that male Tyrannosaurs are green, while the females are brown – further, male Velociraptors are brighter orange with distinct tiger-like stripes. Later, in Jurassic Park III we’re introduced to new raptors, where the males have a stripe running down the sides of their back (a feature later reflected in Velociraptor Blue) and feather-like quills. The females are more white in appearance. (This makes sense because – no offense ladies – in nature, males are usually more vibrant, like cardinals for example. This is because the females are usually the ones doing the hunting and protection of their young, and so for these reasons, they need to be more dull in color and blend in better to their surroundings.)

So what’s the deal with the dinos in Jurassic World? While Jurassic World established that the Raptors, Mosasaur and Indominus are female, we do know that there were also males, and controlled breeding, like in today’s zoos. This tweet from writer/director Colin Trevorrow himself spells it out:

This information from Colin Trevorrow confirms that between Jurassic World and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the animals were breeding on Isla Nublar. In Fallen Kingdom, there’s an Allosaurus that is literally called a “juvenile” Allosaurus, and you can also see various baby Triceratops several times. If you’re reading this and thinking you were the only one who thought that the animals were all female, don’t worry, you are not alone. Strangely, numerous instances of licensed material for the franchise have stated that all Jurassic World dinosaurs are female. Mattel has referred to the male “buck” rex as female, for instance, while ‘Jurassic World: The Evolution of Claire’ has also claimed all animals to be female. (Side bar: I’d love to see male and female distinction in the games, and even a “controlled breeding” element. This could be risky territory – I just want to see baby dinos, can you blame me!?)

This makes the ending of Fallen Kingdom all the more significant: now that the animals are on the mainland, they will continue to breed. There obviously aren’t multiple rexes or raptors released from Lockwoods estate, so their reproductive options are limited. However, there were multiple ankylosaurs, ceratopsians, theropods, sauropods, and others released into North America that will certainly have the chance to reproduce naturally.

I am interested to see how the animals will repopulate in the Americas as invasive species, if that is something that Colin Trevorrow decides to explore. The key for combatting this invasive species threat will be response time to their capture. Compies would likely be impossible to locate and capture – there could be thousands running around after a few years. Conversely, some of the larger animals will be easier to isolate and capture with the help of the technological forces of the 21st century. With the amount of animals that were released from Lockwood’s estate, there certainly had to be a few males and females of most of the species and they will have the ability, if given the opportunity, to breed. After all, they’ve always been male and female, and breeding – ever since 1993.

If you ever forget that, just remember the words from Owen. “They’re thinkin’ I gotta eat…I gotta hunt…I gotta…”

‘Jurassic World’ Animation Supervisor Glen McIntosh Holding Lecture This Saturday at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology!

If you’re anywhere near the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology in Alberta, Canada, you’re in luck! ‘Jurassic World’ Animation Supervisor, Glen McIntosh, is giving a lecture this Saturday May 4th! The lecture will take place on May 4th at 1:30 p.m. in the auditorium, where Glen will talk about realistic creature design and animation.

As a bonus, Glen will be signing original artwork (limited supplies) in the museum lobby after the talk, which is not to be missed!

The lecture is free with admission, so if you’re an artist of any kind, or just a movie or dinosaur fan, it’s something you don’t want to miss! Glen has worked on numerous Jurassic projects, including Jurassic Park 3, World, and Fallen Kingdom, and has worked with both the designs, art, and of course, the animation of the dinosaurs.

Will you be attending? Be sure to share your comments and photos online so!

Vote Now: Jurassic World Dino Battles ‘March Madness’!

It’s March Madness, and that means bracket polls and online voting.

Inspired by the official Jurassic World ‘Jurassic Battles’, we decided to spice up the variety and make things more difficult (for starters, not pairing off the battles by those already in the films with winners).

Vote Now!

Choose your favorites, or who you think would win logically – there is no wrong way to votes! Our poll notably includes some ‘Jurassic Park’ favorites like Dilophosaurus and Spinosaurus, and is sure to challenge fans with their picks. So what are you waiting for? Round one ends on March 24th, and the finals conclude on the 31st!

Of course, we couldn’t feature every species – and while we love the Mosasaurus, including her just seemed unfair for the competition. Be sure to come back and vote for every round – and as always, stay tuned for everything Jurassic!

Exclusive First Look at Mattel ‘Jurassic World Dino Rivals’ Fall Lineup!

New York Toy Fair may have ended well over a week ago, but that doesn’t mean the reveals have ended! In collaboration with Mattel, we have the first look at some of the upcoming Fall Jurassic World Dino Rivals lineup!

These items are a small sampling of the numerous toys coming out later in the year, which includes multiple new sculpts, species, and repaints! Take a look at the lineup below:

Attack Packs – $7.99

The small Attack Pack assortment will see many great new additions later this year, including the carnivorous Mononykus which is the first fully feathered Jurassic Park dinosaur toy, and the adorable Mussaurus, once believed to be a uniquely small Sauropod due to only juvenile fossils being discovered.

Savage Strike – $9.99

The Savage Strike assortment will continue later in the year, and while its full breadth of species has yet to be unveiled, we have a tease of one of the new items: the Jurassic Park 3 Male Raptor sporting a unique non-film color scheme. While he was slated to release in film colors in 2018, the item was sadly canceled, but thankfully the sculpt lives on here!

Mega Dual Attack – $19.99

Hold on to your butts, as we have the exclusive first look at the Mega Dual Attack Quetzalcoatlus. This magnificent flying reptile is one of the largest flying animals to ever exist, and makes a fantastic new Jurassic World toy. The Quetz can attack with button activated flapping wings and a head strike action!

Be sure to also check out the first look at Mega Dual Attack Amargasaurus via our friends at Collect Jurassic!

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Collect Jurassic has partnered with Mattel to exclusively reveal part of their upcoming Fall figure releases for their Jurassic World Dino Rivals toyline! New entries in the Mega Dual Attack, Attack Pack, and Savage Strike assortments are all on their way in addition to what was revealed during the New York Toy Fair. Without further ado, we can first reveal this Collect Jurassic-exclusive image of the Mega Dual Attack Amargasaurus, as well as images of the Mononykus, Mussasaurus and feathered Velociraptor coming our way. See the full reveals on collectjurassic.com, as well as an exclusive Quetzalcoatlus reveal on @jurassic_outpost! #collectjurassic #matteljurassicworld #jurassicworld #jurassicpark #mattel #exclusivereveal #toys #dinosaurs #toycollector #amargasaurus #mononykus #mussasaurus #velociraptor

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Also coming later this year is the Destroy N Devour Indominus Rex, new Roarivore repaints, Super Colossal Blue, and more! Be sure to check out our Toy Fair coverage for those pictures, and our buying guide for the toys already available!

What new toys are you most excited for? Be sure to sound off in the comments below, and stay tuned for all the latest news!


New Walmart Commerical features ‘Jurassic Park’ Explorer and Compys!

Walmart released a commerical during the Golden Globes this past Sunday for their new grocery pickup service, which allows customers to order groceries online and have it delivered to their car. By the end of 2019, Walmart hopes to have 2,140 online grocery pickup sites. The promotional commercial released features iconic vehicles from TV shows and movies such as the Batmobile, the Ghostbusters ambulance, Knight Rider Firebird, Dumb & Dumber “Mutt Cutts” van, Scooby Doo Mystery Machine and most importantly, the Ford Explorer from Jurassic Park.

“We not only picked famous cars from iconic movies we knew would be instantly recognizable to our customers — and launched the campaign during one of the film industry’s most popular awards shows — but we also worked with a variety of different Hollywood studios to gain access to these vehicles,” Messing explained. “This helped ensure the famous cars looked just like what our customers knew from the films, while demonstrating the ease, speed and convenience of the service and that it’s for everyone, regardless of what car you drive.”

Below, please enjoy the 90 second commerical from Walmart featuring the Jurassic Park Ford Explorer and compys!

What do you think of Walmart using the classic Jurassic Park Ford Explorer in their advertisement? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below and on our forums.

Source: Walmart, Supermarket News

OPINION: “So, how do you know the Kirbys?” – Jurassic Park III Revisited

Allow me to share a memory with you.

It is just after 7:00 PM on a weekday. Huddled behind a computer screen in my parental home’s small study, I’m listening to the clicking and humming sounds of the desktop computer dialing up.

The internet comes to life and I frantically get to work: My parents have allotted me thirty minutes of internet time each night, no more, as dialing up makes it impossible to receive or make phone calls.

These are exciting times: production of the third Jurassic Park film is in full swing, images taken at the set and published to promote the film find their way online. As it is early 2000, the Internet is not yet mainstream, but it is getting a foothold in most households and schools, enabling users to communicate more easily with people all over the planet.

My number one, and only, priority online at this time is Jurassic Park III. For these thirty minutes I am sitting behind the computer with my fingers crossed, hoping the images and discussions on fan forums will load as quickly as possible, saving as much material as I can. Once offline again, I can write down my own thoughts and share them the following night. It is the first time I am able to follow a film’s production in real-time.

As with the original Jurassic Park (1993) and The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), most of the cast and crew attached to the film are unknown to me. But it is now possible to read up on their bodies of work, to find out about the films they have acted in, or produced, or scored the music for.

Details of the third film’s story itself are scarce: there will be redesigned Velociraptors (at one point they are presented as “feathered”), and a new threat, the Spinosaurus. A highlight; pictures of the absolutely massive Pteranodon aviary’s river and ravine set find their way online. While there is no sign of the winged beasts themselves, it’s safe to say I am impressed and most excited for all that is to grace the silver screen a few months on.

Jurassic Park III

Those days of having to dial-up feel as if a lifetime ago.

We now know how the story ended. Jurassic Park III was met with mixed reviews, both professionally and by fans. Seventeen years on, bitter battles are still being fought about that greatest point of contention – the Spinosaurus killing the Tyrannosaurus rex.

In the weeks, months and years following Jurassic Park III’s release, stories about a troubled production surfaced, revealing the filmmakers dealt with far larger problems than two fictionalized, beefed up top-predators duking it out.

The biggest issue the film’s production ran into was the original script being thrown out weeks before filming would commence, forcing the writers to quickly come up with the current story – going as far as whole pages being written on the spot.

This might have been a nightmare for the cast and crew, at times not knowing in the morning what they would be filming that very afternoon; in retrospect it may have been a blessing in disguise for fans. One version of the script saw Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler (Sam Neill and Laura Dern) in the process of separation.

Keeping a notorious scene from Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018) in mind, one has to ask: do these writers and filmmakers derive a devilish delight from upsetting fans? Will they stop at nothing to shock devoted audiences?

Luckily, director Joe Johnston felt the story they originally had in mind did not work, thus sparing us from having to actually witness the first film’s most beloved characters going through a divorce. Now, we just get a glimpse of what could have been before all hopes and dreams about seeing Alan and Ellie together are crushed by the revelation Ellie (now Degler – Sattler) has a new man in her life.

It is here the story picks up and continues Alan Grant’s arch, which started eight years before in Jurassic Park.

Jurassic Park III’s story does seem deceivingly simple on the surface. Struggling to generate funds for his research, Dr. Grant is invited by wealthy couple Paul and Amanda Kirby (William H. Macy and Téa Leoni) to serve as a guide for their flight over Isla Sorna. Partially pressured into joining them by his assistant Billy Brennan (Alessandro Nivola) he reluctantly agrees; believing the money the Kirbys offer to compensate his efforts can keep his dig site open and counting on the promise it is only a fly-over, Alan and Billy accompany the Kirbys and the small crew hired by them.

Once the group reaches Isla Sorna, it turns out the Kirbys have an ulterior motive and do intend to land on the island. They are looking for their missing son, Eric (Trevor Morgan), and Amanda’s missing boyfriend Ben Hildebrand (Mark Harelik). As with every Jurassic Park film, it does not take long for events to take a nasty turn and disaster to strike. The plane is destroyed and the survivors get split up, forced to not just fight for survival; they must attempt to find one another again as well. And, hopefully, Eric.

It comes as no surprise the film has a happy ending, seeing the Kirbys reunited with their son, and a rescue mission, orchestrated by Ellie’s husband Mark (Taylor Nichols), on its way to pick up the survivors.

Jurassic Park III revisited

I must confess I’ve never been the third film’s greatest champion myself. Though I’ve always found it an enjoyable film to pass a bit of time with and appreciated what it has to offer, it never felt as adequately made as The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It did not seem to add much to the larger Jurassic Park story, feeling more as if a spin-off rather than a true sequel.

Recently, I stumbled upon the satirical trailer Screen Junkies created for Jurassic Park III. I deeply enjoy the spoof material the crew at Screen Junkies creates for the blockbuster films we all cherish. They unashamedly make fun of the more ridiculous aspects of these films, but they do so in good spirits and with a proportionate dose of healthy humor.

I laughed at everything their Honest Trailer presented; after all, doesn’t Jurassic Park III deserve a bit of a verbal beating every now and then?

Seeing that parody trailer, I felt the urge to give Jurassic Park III a new chance. At first, my idea was to go through it scene by scene and write a funny, but a little scathing, review. Instead, I ended up watching it four times in a single week, falling in love: despite its obvious shortcomings and the troubled production process that could have resulted in a disastrous film, it is charming. It has a genuine heart and soul, ensuring the film succeeds more than it fails, at times reaching highs rivaling events from the second film. It sports some impressive set pieces and marvelous animatronics.

Watching it those four times, I realized it would be utterly unfair to write another damning review of the third Jurassic Park film. It’s easy to ridicule the film for what it does wrong, or is thought to mess up when it comes to the Jurassic Park mythology.

It’s perhaps harder to see or appreciate everything it does right, being, if nothing else, a solid adventure film. This is testament of the skills of the scriptwriters: Alexander Payne, Peter Buchman, Jim Taylor and, not credited, John August, created a story which is simple but with compelling, even complex characters.

After years of being the underdog of the franchise, it simply doesn’t deserve the treatment I was originally about to give it. After all, isn’t the underdog often a quiet, unknown and unsung hero?

The dinosaurs of Jurassic Park III

Paleontologist David Hone wrote the following about the clash of titans in his book The Tyrannosaur Chronicles (2016):

“We know so much about the animals in this group – their anatomy, evolution, behaviour and general biology – but it’s almost impossible to say very much over the chorus of statements about how cool they are or questions as to whether they would win in a fight with Spinosaurus.”

It’s the first that comes to mind when thinking of Jurassic Park III: the infamous fight between a Tyrannosaurus rex and the Spinosaurus. Much to both the bemusement and chagrin of paleontologists, the discussion seems far from over. If the Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom concept art is to be believed, we came close to a rematch between the two behemoths – and a revival of the debate. In all fairness, a follow-up battle has been looming from the moment Jurassic Park III roared into movie theatres and on home release.

Personally, the dethroning of the Tyrannosaurus as the largest carnivorous dinosaur in the franchise never bothered me. The Spinosaurus was a welcome change, not in the least because of its unique physical traits; the sail on its back and the crocodilian jaws, the large arms and three-fingered hands make it impossible to confuse the animal with any of the other carnivorous dinosaurs in the franchise.

Being able to swim, the Spinosaurus offered new, exciting possibilities, this new trait fully utilized in one of the most impressive scenes in the history of Jurassic Park films. The Spinosaurus destroying the barge and thrashing through the river is an absolute highlight not just in the film, but technically too – rain, as has been well documented, was always a concern when it came to the animatronic dinosaurs in the first two films. This time, the dinosaur had to be able to withstand much more than just rain, being placed in the studio’s artificial lake for this final confrontation, facing not just water but fire as well.

The outcome is a small miracle; the impressive work of the Stan Winston Studio crew and the finest digital effects created by the ILM team combined created a heart-stopping sequence.

When it comes to the (re-)design of the dinosaurs, the new “V.2” Velociraptors are an absolute highlight. More intelligent than we’ve experienced them before, the animals interact and socialize with one another, consciously plotting against the humans. There are distinct differences between the males and females – and a matriarch clearly in charge of the pack. The animals are not just portrayed as murderous beasts; they seem to be thoughtful, considerate and even capable of compassion towards their own kind.

The Pteranodons were given an overhaul too. Largely scrapped from The Lost World: Jurassic Park in favor of the San Diego climax, the flying reptiles only featured in the closing scene of that film, reigning the skies above Isla Sorna with an almost regal appearance.

The rulers of the sky were given quite a different look for Jurassic Park III; a little smaller, more vicious and, ironically, with teeth. (Pteranodon means “winged and toothless”.)

That’s not to say they are less impressive. The aviary scenes in which they appear are some of the most thrilling in the film, creating a clear and unique identity that sets Jurassic Park III apart from the other films in the franchise.

Other dinosaurs fulfilled less prominent parts. The Brachiosaurus, Stegosaurus, Triceratops and Compsognathus make brief returns, appearing in the fly-over scene, on the riverbank and, in the case of Compsognathus, not just around the overturned water truck Eric hides in, but during the fight between the Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus as well. Keen observers can spot a small flock of Compsognathus fleeing the scene as the island’s rulers battle in the jungle.

New dinosaurs making small appearances are the Corythosaurus, living in a herd with its more famous cousin Parasaurolophus, a pair of male Ankylosaurus lumbering through the forests and along the riverbank, and a single Ceratosaurus deciding against eating Grant and the Kirbys after they retrieved the lost satellite phone from the Spinosaur’s excrements.

Even now, seventeen years on, many of the animatronic and visual effects remain at the top of their game, comfortably rivaling more recent work. Naturally some of it has aged, which comes with the territory and ever changing technology; as a whole, and with the practical and CGI effects combined, the visuals are still solid as a rock, immersing us in that strange, resurrected prehistoric world on Isla Sorna.

The characters of Jurassic Park III

The visual effects are only half of the success of these films. As with Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park, the true secret of Jurassic Park III’s replay value lies with the characters.

That might not be too obvious at first. The characters in Jurassic Park III are some of the heavier criticized elements of the film. As with the other two films though, the success of a Jurassic Park film stems from the fact it is about quite ordinary, relatable people being thrust into extraordinary and unexpected circumstances. In this case, trying to survive amongst cloned dinosaurs living freely on a tropical island.

Much like The Lost World: Jurassic Park, Jurassic Park III follows a template laid out by the original film. There are elements used in all three films: the main characters are oblivious to or ignorant about the dinosaurs until coming eye to eye with the animals. There is at least one sequence in which a mode of transportation is destroyed by a top predator. And main characters make predictions or observations which come to fruition during the course of the film, for example Alan Grant describing the theorized hunting methods of Velociraptors: Robert Muldoon (Bob Peck) is killed verbatim by the end of Jurassic Park.

While Jurassic Park III does roughly follow the story and character templates as presented in the previous two films, it just as easily deviates from it. The destruction of the aircraft happens quite early on. The main characters’ first true encounter with a dinosaur (not counting the fly-by) is with a large predator. The deaths all take place within the first forty minutes of the film. And unlike its predecessors, the end of the third film does not finish with an exciting climax or big battle between two dinosaur species or dinosaurs confronting the arriving marines.

Either by choice or out of necessity, Jurassic Park III dares to be a little different from what came before, just like its characters.

“This was a stupid decision but I did it with the best intentions.”

Well established in the Jurassic Park films are supporting characters possessing a set of skills they can and will use sometime during the film. From Lex’s (Ariana Richards) knowledge of complex computer systems to Kelly’s (Vanessa Lee Chester) gymnastic skills, the supporting characters are given a moment to shine and save other characters with their wit and knowledge.

Billy Brennan is no exception. En route to Isla Sorna, Billy reveals to Grant his old bag’s strap once saved him from a mishap while hang-gliding in New Zealand. “Survival of the most idiotic,” Grant grumpily remarks before closing his eyes for a nap.

The information about Billy’s misadventure proves valuable when the survivors of the plane crash find the parasail Eric and Ben used. Grant asks Billy, half in jest, if he would be able to fly with it, before suggesting taking it with them to draw the attention of planes that might pass over the island.

As expected (and revealed in the trailers), Billy instead uses the parasail to traverse the aviary’s narrow canyon, attempting to rescue Eric from the Pteranodons’ hungry chicks.

Eric is saved, but Billy falls prey to the adult Pteranodons, eventually giving up and sacrificing himself to allow the others a chance of escape.

Here, the script proves unpredictable, diverging one final time from that template we know and have come to expect; Billy has survived and was found by the navy before the Kirby-family and Grant are picked up. Grant and Billy are reunited on the navy’s helicopter.

It is a chance for Grant to make amends after scolding Billy for stealing two Velociraptor eggs from nests they encountered before the group was separated. Through the course of the film we learn Grant and Billy have a mutual respect for one another. As disaster strikes they must try to survive by utilizing all their knowledge and experience, unwillingly becoming the leaders of the small group.

The friendship between the seasoned paleontologist and the boyishly enthusiastic student takes a punch when Grant discovers the theft.

After Billy has disappeared and the remaining survivors are floating down the river on the barge, we find Grant lost in thought, mourning the loss of his apprentice. Billy, young, curious and driven by a hunger to succeed, might have been more than just a student to Grant; he was not only part of the next generation of scientists, but possibly a reflection of Grant in his younger years as well.

During this brief meditative moment we learn Grant truly appreciated Billy’s company and enthusiasm, his student’s love for the animals he studied resurfacing within himself when the barge passes the dinosaurs on the riverbank. A peaceful scene far removed from the carnage the survivors endured.

“You never can tell about people, can you?”

Grief and mourning are not luxuries awarded to mercenaries Cooper (John Diehl) and Nash (Bruce Young). They only play brief parts, and there is hardly anything in it for them that constitutes as “character development”. They truly are along for the ride as dinosaur-fodder.

Despite their modest appearances, there is a significant shift in their characters. As Cooper, Nash and booking agent Udesky (Michael Jeter) set out to secure the area, they do so with great confidence. Believing it will indeed be a walk in the park, as Udesky assured Paul Kirby over the phone earlier in the film, they seem to expect finding Eric and Ben within a few hours.

It is not long after they have entered the jungle surrounding the abandoned airfield the tables are turned; whatever horrors they faced changed them from experienced combatants into terrified, trembling men trying nothing else but to escape. Nash and Udesky reach the plane safely. Cooper is left behind.

It’s most notably Nash who’s clearly shaken. That fine moment of absolute terror comes across best when he says with a trembling voice, “give me a hand here, Udesky,” trying to get his seatbelt on while firing up the aircraft; it’s spoken with the utmost fear of whatever roams the jungle outside, while still composing himself to ensure the plane takes off safely and in the proper manner. But the way he speaks and the look on his face are all telling. He has one objective: to get the aircraft off the ground and away from the dinosaur they encountered, protecting his employers and their guests.

The acting in this scene is, if nothing else, absolutely solid. With the smallest of hand gestures, facial expressions and verbal commands, Nash and Udesky truly set the moment. It is clear they are not equipped to deal with the monster that lies in wait.

Despite Nash’s and Udesky’s best efforts to make an escape, the plane is downed as the Spinosaurus scoops up Cooper from the runway right in front of the aircraft, forcing Nash to pull up too early. With the fuel cut off the plane crashes, ending up in a tree.

It is here Nash perishes in the jaws of the Spinosaurus. The third film doesn’t hold back when it comes to the few death scenes; Nash is being killed in a particularly gruesome fashion, first ripped out of the aircraft’s fuselage, then thrown to the ground and stepped upon. It is all shown in its horrifying glory. The presumed ripping off of his head does happen off-screen, but the suggestion is enough to leave a lasting impression.

With Cooper and Nash gone, only Udesky remains. Having returned to the airplane’s wreck the five survivors try to salvage as much as they can; we are given a brief shot of Udesky amidst the wreckage, holding up a damaged rifle. He throws it aside as it turns out it is beyond repair. It’s a subtle way of letting the audience know why the group doesn’t have any weapons left.

It is Udesky who provides the more natural comic relief. “If we split up, I’m going with you guys,” he tells Billy as Amanda and Paul argue nearby during their trek through the jungle.

Much like Cooper and Nash, Udesky is given little chance to develop beyond being a hired hand. He does get an opportunity to showcase a bit of his talents, succeeding in getting Amanda’s video camera to play the recording made two months before, the footage lending a little more credibility to the idea Ben and Eric might still be alive.

Eventually, Udesky is killed by Velociraptors. Like Nash’s death, his is exceptionally gruesome, a Velociraptor delivering the final blow by planting one of its sickle-claws right into Udesky’s spine.

“Does anyone have a question that does not relate to Jurassic Park?”

As one pair of Velociraptors kills Udesky, Alan Grant, now separated from the rest of the group, studies another. The animals are communicating with each other, snarling and grunting, clearly looking for someone – or something.

Despite his previous experience with the animals on Isla Nublar, Grant can’t help but observe from his vantage point. His curiosity getting the better of him for a moment, he wants to learn more about the creatures that nearly cost him his life years before.

In The Lost World: Jurassic Park John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) tries to sell a journey to Isla Sorna as possible vindication to Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum). Malcolm flat out refuses, only changing his mind when he learns his girlfriend, paleontologist Sarah Harding (Julianne Moore), has traveled to the island on her own to get a head start.

Grant agreeing to travel to the island after he labeled InGen’s creations “theme park monsters” during his lecture earlier in the film with the only motivator being a financial compensation was met with ridicule by fans, considered a lazy solution to get Alan Grant back into the film.

While I do agree it’s not the most elegant of solutions, it’s not entirely out of bounds either. Paleontology is a branch of science relying heavily on donations. Flying over the island and serving as tour guides is easy money for Grant and Billy, enough to fund their dig site and secure the continuation of their research.

The criticism of the money offered being enough to have Grant change his mind is often accompanied by the complaint Grant doesn’t really have any character development to speak of. We first meet him when he is sitting in the garden with Ellie’s son. He’s still not truly accustomed to being around children, and he again ends up trying to survive on a dinosaur-infested island, including having a kid in tow.

As we are taught early on, Grant publicly expresses nothing but disdain for InGen and their tampering with DNA. But privately, he can’t help passionately discuss the vocal abilities of the Velociraptors with Ellie; she’s one of the few other people having had such a close encounter with the animals, understanding Grant better than most.

Velociraptor vocal abilities become a recurring theme when Grant tries to have Ellie’s pet parrot Jack speak his name. “He used to know me,” he says, pulling away from the bird’s cage slightly disappointed when his attempts prove unsuccessful; the endeavor of trying to make the parrot speak transpires into the nightmare of the Velociraptor saying “Alan” on the empty aircraft.

By the end of the film, Grant uses the cast of the resonating chamber to imitate a Raptor’s cry for help, hoping the familiar sound created by the intruding humans will confuse the Velociraptors enough to prevent them from attacking.

Grant’s character does undergo a change, though it happens quite early on in the film. Once the group reaches the island, an almost lost passion is reignited within Grant while spotting living dinosaurs for the first time in eight years. “My god, I’d forgotten,” he says to Billy as they watch herds of animals pass below them.

The joyful moment is brief: the plane lands on the island. Cooper knocks out Grant as he tries to make his way towards the cockpit, objecting to the aircraft setting down. From that moment on, contempt for his hosts and a fascination with the animals they encounter take tumultuous turns during the journey across the island.

It’s hard to say if, by the end of the film and having survived the dinosaurs once more, Grant has undergone significant, lasting change. An exchange between him and Eric on how both would like to return to the island in years to come was left out of the film. Could it be Grant is never truly able to let go? Would he possibly contemplate one last adventure, properly prepared, to face the animals that are both his livelihood and haunt his dreams?

“I think I can manage the next two minutes without you.”

It’s equally impossible to tell if Eric Kirby would really consider a future return to Isla Sorna after his harrowing misadventure. Having adapted to life on the island and camping out in an old water truck, there is a nice reversal of roles when Eric rescues Grant from the Velociraptors. Much like Grant, the audience is quite astonished the boy has lasted this long. Unfortunately, we learn little about how Eric survived, other than him staying in the vicinity of the old laboratory, hoping a rescue mission would start searching for him in that area.

Neither do we learn how the more unfortunate Ben Hildebrand perished right after ending up on the island, still trapped in the parasail’s harness.

With this, Eric’s story might well be the most intriguing and adventurous, but the film never takes a moment to explore how Eric spent his time collecting the items stocked in the truck, evading dinosaurs and observing them, ironically making him the least interesting character of the entire film, while at the same time being the reason the entire expedition has been mounted in the first place.

Grant does inquire how Eric endured those eight weeks, but Eric remains quite tight-lipped on this; the conversation then shifts to issues Alan Grant and Eric Kirby have in common – being alive on Isla Sorna and a shared aversion for Ian Malcolm and his theories on Chaos.

“Paul Kirby, Kirby Enterprises.”

Surprisingly, Alan Grant and Paul Kirby have something in common as well. Their fragile professional relationship strained once Grant realizes he has been taken to the island under false pretences, it is interesting to see both have former partners who are now in relationships with other, presumably more successful, men.

In a twist of fate, Paul is unable to save Ben Hildebrand for Amanda, while Mark Degler is the one who, informed by Ellie, eventually intervenes and ensures the navy rescues Billy, Grant and the Kirbys.

While they have this in common, Alan Grant and Paul Kirby differ from one another like night from day. Grant is educated, capable and rugged, whereas Paul comes across as not very proactive, clumsy and even incompetent. Having you wonder if you’d trust him installing a bathroom or a kitchen in your home to begin with.

However, Paul Kirby does possess a poker face and guts. He not only manages ensnaring Billy Brennan and Dr. Grant with the promise of financial support for their dig site, he succeeds in enlisting the mercenaries and chartering a private plane to get them to Isla Sorna: Paul improvises his way through the entire ordeal, finding himself capable of much more than just being a dull salesman.

An ordeal not even his fault to begin with. After all, it was his ex-wife’s new boyfriend who took their son to Isla Sorna. Paul has graciously set aside whatever differences he and Amanda have to help her not just finding their son, but rescuing Ben as well – and he is convinced they will bring both back home safely.

He does so selflessly and in the process nearly loses his own life, trying to distract the Spinosaurus by climbing a gigantic construction crane, giving Grant, Eric and Amanda a fighting chance. Paul Kirby becomes the true, unacknowledged hero of Jurassic Park III.

Paul isn’t entirely blameless, having conspired with his ex-wife to bring Dr. Grant with them by carefully hiding the true nature of their trip. Yet, I can’t help feel for the poor guy. It’s not his fault his son was lost. He perseveres and remains endlessly optimistic, believing they will succeed and the outcome of their expedition will be positive.

Once the Kirbys and Grant make it to the barge Paul takes the lead, starting to plan ahead, trying to think of ways to attract the attention of passing planes or ships once they have reached the coast.

By the end of the film, having found their son and having lived through the experience together as a family, we can briefly see Paul and Amanda hold hands as the navy lands on the beach. Is it possible they have truly reconciled and might try to build a life together again?

“Dr. Grant, you have no idea how important it is to us that you come along. It would make all the difference.”

While Paul is the man wielding the pen and checkbook, Amanda’s invitation is heartfelt and sincere. Minutes before, Grant and Billy joining the Kirbys at the diner, she seemed nervous. After her husband explains they love the outdoors, she interjects they have two seats reserved on the first commercial flight to the Moon; the claim comes off as fabricated.

But convincing Dr. Grant to join them she partially speaks the truth; it truly would make a difference. His expertise is needed to survive. It’s hard to say if Amanda’s personal request or Paul’s offer of a sizeable compensation for his trouble is what eventually convinces Grant; it is clear her entire demeanor changes between the two statements, trying to persuade Grant to join their expedition, the true reason for his desired presence kept well hidden.

As one of the less popular characters in the Jurassic Park franchise, Amanda Kirby is the odd one out: the other leading ladies, Ellie Sattler and Sarah Harding, are both scientists, coming with experience, knowledge and predefined skills. In fact, the children aside, all characters in the previous two films were present on the islands in a professional capacity, either invited by Hammond or as employees of InGen. For the first, and so far only, time in the franchise the lead characters truly are civilians who are entirely out of their depth.

On the surface, this may make Amanda seem a little dull and uninteresting; it also makes her slightly unpredictable.

There lays a more complex character beyond the seemingly clueless, bullhorn-carrying woman. Leoni gives one hell of a performance when it comes to playing the guilt-ridden mother. Once the game is up and Grant and Billy know the true story, the mask falls away and she shows great versatility.

From her disbelief when they are ordered back on the plane by Udesky and Nash to evacuate (will they give up the search?), to the moment they find the abandoned camera and she learns Ben has died, leaving Eric stranded entirely on his own – hope, grief and despair take quick turns. Leoni communicates all these emotions through subtle facial expressions and body language.

Amanda Kirby is, if nothing else, a desperate mother trying to save both her son and partner, no matter the cost.

While Amanda and Paul might be underestimating the dangers they face on the island because their focus is on the safe return of Eric and Ben, they both learn quickly.

Locked behind the laboratory’s cage’s gate with Billy, Amanda thinks fast and takes charge, her action temporarily trapping the Velociraptor hunting them and ensuring the group can make a dash for the jungle. She again takes the lead at the end of the film, having Grant hand her the eggs so she can push them towards the anticipating Velociraptors.

It is true she utters quite a few screams and the bullhorn scene draws as many laughs as it does eye rolls; from the character’s perspective she’s doing what seems both reasonable and out of utter despair.

Amanda Kirby not being experienced and unprepared for what they may find makes it a little easier to understand her plight when she, still clinging to the life jacket Eric wore, is confronted with Ben’s remains. While the reveal of the skeleton, practically falling on top of her, is played for audience laughs, it is a deeply traumatizing moment for Amanda.

Even though she witnessed the death of Nash and possibly saw what happened to Cooper as well, this is the first time she is bluntly confronted with the truth: people die on Isla Sorna, no matter hired hands or loved ones. Despite Paul’s assurances and optimism it could very well be Eric did not make it either.

Site… B-movie?

There is a strange duality to the criticism leveled at Jurassic Park III. While it is regularly considered a lesser work than The Lost World: Jurassic Park, you are at the same time often expected to think of Jurassic Park III as a more entertaining and better film than the first sequel.

As film is a form of art and art is usually not easily judged objectively, it is difficult to say where the third film truly should be placed.

Working against Jurassic Park III are the facts The Lost World: Jurassic Park was adapted from the accompanying novel (though the film’s story was radically changed), had Steven Spielberg at its helm and was the first, highly anticipated sequel to hit sensation Jurassic Park.

A second sequel, no matter how good, would most likely never be able to live up to the original, and perhaps not even its more recent predecessor. With Steven Spielberg taking a backseat as executive producer, the absence of Michael Crichton and David Koepp as writers of the script, and John Williams having other engagements preventing him from writing and composing the third film’s score, some of the magic seems at first sight lost.

However, other people taking over did offer a chance of exploring a different side of the franchise and taking risks with it, introducing some elements and scenes more recent blockbusters might not even have dared commit to paper. One of those being the, at first glance, rather underwhelming finale of the film.

The Kirbys reunited, with Grant having found Eric very much alive and the final hurdle overcome by returning the stolen eggs to the Velociraptors, the survivors find themselves on a beach where a mysterious man in a nice looking suit (Frank Clem) stands alone as if he has simply taken a small break during a leisurely stroll.

Raising a bullhorn to call out for Dr. Grant it quickly becomes apparent this man is not alone at all; he is joined by the navy landing on the beach, the armed forces ready to find Dr. Grant and his party.

The brief history of the Jurassic Park films and film logic itself dictate we should be rewarded with a final battle between man and beast. Originally, several confrontations were considered for the end of the film; ranging from Grant luring the Velociraptors to the river to battle the Spinosaurus (with the Velociraptors eventually killing the Spinosaurus), to Pteranodons attacking the navy’s helicopters, the ideas were nothing short of spectacular.

Instead, having Grant and the Kirbys plainly walk up to them, the troops pack up as quickly as they came. While this may be a disappointing end to the film for fans and viewers who had expected an all-out battle between the navy and the local wildlife, the quiet and quick retreat is a rather realistic approach to the situation. With the mission accomplished there is no reason to engage in a conflict with the island’s rulers and risking the lives of the troops sent to retrieve the survivors.

Against all odds, Grant and Billy are reunited. Having been found by the navy just before Grant and the Kirbys arrived at the beach, Billy is wounded but alive. It’s a surprising step off the beaten path for the film, having a character presumed dead return later on, very much alive – rumor has it Alessandro Nivola himself negotiated his character would survive, giving Billy Brennan a chance to return in a sequel.

With the survivors safely on board the helicopter, the troops leave Isla Sorna behind. Both the characters and audiences are given one last good look at some of the Pteranodons, now free and taking to the skies. No longer monstrous and terrifying but majestic and graciously gliding past the helicopters, they are leaving their former home and prison behind. With both Billy’s survival and the Pteranodons’ escape leaving room for a sequel, the animals’ destination remains unknown once the credits roll.

Jurassic Park III leaves quite a few practical questions unresolved. The film doesn’t always adhere to information established by the previous films, actual science or even simple logic.

Though Jurassic Park III does not concern itself too much with scientific explanations or consciously adding much to the mythology, it does take us to some locations not seen before; the laboratory and the aviary. Both locations were first introduced in the novels by Michael Crichton, albeit in slightly different forms.

When it does momentarily explore science, it is well explained within the movies’ universe and serves a purpose. The film continues Grant’s research on Velociraptor behavior and communication. It gives Alan and Ellie a private moment to reminisce on their shared experience, exchanging observations they made back on Isla Nublar and more recently through the study of dinosaur fossils.

What it lacks in science, it compensates for with human drama. While the pace is fast and the film is short, clocking in under just an hour and a half without the credits, the small principal cast allows us to get to know the characters and their motivations a little better than we do in some of the other films.

As a result of that small cast, he film offers its characters moments to reflect on loss, or to express the fear of loss; to grieve and to reconcile. Given the nature of the film, many of the characters’ responses to the situations they find themselves in feel grounded in reality without the actors’ performances being too over the top.

The only film in the franchise not featuring a human antagonist, the tension instead relies on conflict within the group and the characters’ different objectives: Grant refuses to believe Eric could still be alive and wants to push for the coast; the Kirbys don’t want to leave the island without their son; and Billy risks his friendship with Grant by stealing the Velociraptor eggs, endangering everyone as it turns out the Velociraptors are actively hunting them.

All these elements combined create a film that may not be perfect, but make for an adventure film with at its heart two desperate people who will do anything to find their loved ones; and is that not the one element all Jurassic Park films have in common – well written, relatable human characters with a strong desire not just to survive, but to save those they love and care for?

Jurassic Park III’s legacy

Having fully immersed myself in the world of Jurassic Park III for weeks on end, re-watching the film and a plethora of documentaries, making-of material, studying film stills, conceptual artwork, and listening to Don Davis’ soundtrack on repeat, one question remains: what is Jurassic Park III’s true legacy? It seems easy to dismiss Jurassic Park III as just a spin-off, good for a bit of entertainment during a rainy Sunday afternoon, as quickly forgotten as the adventure is enjoyed.

A little uncomfortably wedged between four larger and financially more successful films, the third movie is often blamed for putting the Jurassic Park franchise in the proverbial coma. On the surface it indeed seems to have had little to no influence on what would be to come fourteen years later.

Surprisingly, Jurassic Park III quite literally left a sizeable mark on the films that were to follow: Jurassic World (2015) and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

Whereas both Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park were mainly dominated by the Velociraptors and, in particular, the Tyrannosaurs, the third film’s creators soon realized the Tyrannosaurs’ reign over the islands and theme park was about to come to an end.

Having been the star dinosaurs of the first two films, the Tyrannosaurs would hardly present an element of surprise in any future films. Despite their historic and contemporary popularity, there were not a whole lot of options left to sweep audiences off of their feet with.

Originally, Baryonyx was considered as the new main threat to both the human characters and Isla Sorna’s wildlife. The filmmakers eventually settled for Spinosaurus aegypticus, a dinosaur larger than Tyrannosaurus rex and easily distinguishable from the other predatory dinosaurs seen before in the franchise.

Having done the unfathomable by killing the Tyrannosaurus rex, the act establishing the Spinosaurus as Isla Sorna’s heir to the throne, and the final shot of the Spinosaurus fleeing the river as Grant succeeds in lighting the gasoline floating on the surface of the river, left the possibility of the animal returning in a future sequel wide open.

The return of the Spinosaurus did not become a reality. Jurassic World introduced a new threat that was bigger and more dangerous than both Tyrannosaurus rex and Spinosaurus. This new creature, named Indominus rex, was a fictional animal, made out of the DNA of different dinosaurs. Not only larger than its predecessors, it was capable of camouflaging itself in the jungle, becoming virtually invisible to humans and animals passing by it. This trait certainly gave it an edge over the Tyrannosaurus rex and Spinosaurus.

Jurassic Park III saw the Velociraptors return to their former glory; while an extensive sequence with the animals chasing survivors through the abandoned InGen worker village and laboratory had been planned for The Lost World: Jurassic Park, their screen time was cut considerably in favor of the Tyrannosaurus rex escaping from the cargo ship and terrorizing San Diego.

Looking quite different from their kin in the previous films, the third film’s Velociraptors were given far more time on film, chasing the survivors not just through the old laboratory, but open fields and jungle as well.

It’s this pack of Velociraptors in Jurassic Park III that paved the way for Blue and her siblings; displaying intelligence and highly developed communicative skills, the capability to set traps, the ability to restrain themselves from killing and reconsidering options when Grant tries to distract them with the cast of the resonating chamber opened up new opportunities not yet explored before.

The influence of sequels

Why are the Spinosaurus and Velociraptors from Jurassic Park III of such importance? How did they influence the new films? To answer these questions, we have to take into consideration a rumor that started during Jurassic World’s production.

The rumor was quite simple: Jurassic World was to be the true sequel to Jurassic Park, deleting the other two films from the franchise’s canon.

Director Colin Trevorrow himself quickly dispelled this rumor, assuring worried fans this was never his intention and the first two sequels would remain part of the canon. They simply would have limited influence on the new films.

Had the rumor been true, could Jurassic World directly following Jurassic Park have worked, and would Jurassic World have existed in its current form? I argue it would not have on both counts.

Had Jurassic World truly been the one and only follow-up to Jurassic Park, Indominus rex would most likely not have been brought to life; the jump from an animal that actually lived once, Tyrannosaurus rex, to an entirely fictionalized creature would simply have been too great, especially considering the absolute wealth of real dinosaurs known from the fossil record left unexplored by the films.

As it stands, the Indominus rex is the very product of the previous films going bigger and bolder with each new entry. Spinosaurus truly is the evolutionary step between Jurassic Park’s Tyrannosaurus rex and Jurassic World’s Indominus; the latter animal’s creation catering to a very clear desire of film audiences. They want it bigger, louder, more dangerous and with more teeth.

The same very much goes for the intelligence displayed by the Velociraptors in Jurassic World. Having been raised in captivity by human handlers, the Velociraptors are capable of following verbal and non-verbal commands. They are eventually set free to hunt down the Indominus rex, believed to be under control just enough to do so safely – and out of sheer desperation, every other option exhausted.

Going from Jurassic Park, where the Velociraptors lived in a heavily fortified and well-guarded pen, straight to Jurassic World, in which they interact far more closely with their human caregivers, would have been too large a step to be believable within the films’ universe.

Herein lies Jurassic Park III’s true inheritance the future films are indebted to, the film naturally bridging the two trilogies: introducing a menagerie of more dangerous and more intelligent dinosaurs than we had seen before, Jurassic Park III cleared the path for those far more outrageous avenues explored in both Jurassic World and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

In defense of the underdog

For now leaving Isla Sorna behind with Dr. Grant and his companions having made it safely off the island, how do I feel about the film as it recently celebrated its seventeenth anniversary?

I have certainly found a new appreciation for it. Despite a tumultuous production time and the looming deadline, Joe Johnston and his team delivered a film that’s tight, action packed and entertaining. It doesn’t waste much time on explaining in detail what we are seeing when the unwilling explorers find the laboratory or the giant barrier standing in the way of a true reunion between Eric and his parents; while possibly a missed opportunity to expand the mythology, it retains a slight air of mystery as well – and it’s this mystery that infuses the entire film. Much like the travelers, we see only those parts of the island they explore. None of them have an idea of what they might run into, there is no one telling them beforehand what they should expect or might possibly stumble upon.

In short, the film leaves a lot to the imagination while at the same time rewarding its viewers with some of the finest animatronics, visual effects and set pieces the franchise has to offer.

For a long time, Jurassic Park III was my third favorite film in the franchise, after Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park.

The second and third film traded places on that personal list recently. The Lost World: Jurassic Park undeniably is the bigger, more ambitious film with higher stakes for its characters and dinosaurs, serving as a renewed warning on the unpredictability of tampering with genetic material and the short-sighted belief nature can be controlled and molded to our own specifications and desires.

Jurassic Park III is a continuation and result of both Dr. Malcolm having breached his NDA by revealing InGen successfully resurrected dinosaurs and the film’s spectacular finale. The secret now out, it shows us how thrill seekers, tourists and adventurers might attempt to get to Isla Sorna to catch a glimpse of the dinosaurs.

As a film it is smaller than its predecessor, at times more claustrophobic and a little simplified. At its core there are big ideas and action sequences the other two films did not get around to incorporating; these are not simply rejected elements not deemed good enough for the original films – at the time those first two films were made some of these scenes, such as the river attack, were technically too challenging to be executed in a believable and satisfying manner.

As such the film should not just be measured by its financial gains or records broken. It should be measured, too, with an understanding of the effort put into the project, the awareness of a difficult job fulfilled under tremendous odds against the endeavor.

To me, the films traded places (not by a large margin, I greatly appreciate both) because, despite all the troubles it faced, it works. It tells the endearing story of two estranged people who try to find their son, willing to do anything to succeed, even if that means inadvertently taking everyone else down with them in their attempt.

It sounds like a dreadful concept for a Jurassic Park movie but the film pulls it off with a fresh spark and flair; while short, it manages to be more than just an endless rollercoaster ride – it gives both its characters and the audience a bit of room to breathe and reflect at various points throughout the movie.

Appealing too is the aforementioned mystery. The characters have no true guide across the island; they are not even in possession of a map. While The Lost World: Jurassic Park gave alcoholic Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard) the benefit of the doubt because he had knowledge of the village and operations building (and the way leading to it), the characters in Jurassic Park III are entirely left to their own devices. They truly represent the audience; they are unprepared and inexperienced when it comes to dealing with the new dinosaurs and trying to find their way around and off the island.

It’s this mystery and these new characters that ultimately won me over again. Paul and Amanda Kirby, Udesky, Billy Brennan and, of course, Dr. Alan Grant returning, form an odd bunch to go tramping around Isla Sorna with; the story, the performances, the characters’ different motivations and objectives, the astounding visual effects, locations and sets make for an achievement that is nothing short of sensational, an adventure I now keep returning to – Amanda Kirby’s request having become the invitation I can never decline.

Acknowledgements

There are several people I would like to thank for their help, both directly and indirectly, in the writing of this article. Without them, it would have been a far lesser work.

First of all, Justin. Two years ago, Justin graciously let me publish an article called “From Jurassic Park to Jurassic World: the influence of sequels” on his personal Jurassic Park fan blog. Parts of that article formed the basis for the conclusion of this renewed visit.

You can find Justin’s blog here.

Daniel for his encouragement, offering to proofread and our discussions on The Meg (2018). Entirely unrelated to Jurassic Park, our ongoing conversation on both the book and film about the Megalodon is a joy.

Last, but absolutely not least, John. John’s continuous help and tireless encouragement have proven invaluable; not only did he proofread the entire article several times, he created the new background for the logo accompanying this article and helped find several of the images used.

Our discussions helped me gain a better understanding of the Jurassic Park films in general, and Jurassic Park III in particular.

John passionately writes about Jurassic Park, games, music, books, comics and Tomb Raider on his own personal blog, which can be found here.

As we so often affectionally joke about the Kirbys: “still the best.”

 

Pictures courtesy of Universal Studios, Amblin Entertainment and Ed Verreaux

Get Papo Velociraptors from Dan’s Dinosaurs!

Looking for new places to buy dinosaur toys? Check out Dan’s Dinosaurs!

Dan’s Dinosaurs started in 2009 as a small business specializing in paleontological collectibles. Dan started the company for dinosaur enthusiasts (like us!) with the goal of having a store that carried all dinosaur products in one place. If you live near Mayfield, Kentucky, you can go check out the brick and mortar storefront in person! Be sure to say hi to Dan for us!

They carry a wide range of educational products, high-end models, and fossil replicas. They currently sell well known brands such as: Safari Ltd, Papo, CollectA, Favorite, and Sideshow Collectibles. Many independent artists and other business owners also sell their work through the store and site. They sell and ship both locally and internationally.

We received a Papo Velociraptor (2016 version). This version of Papo’s popular raptor figure is 6″ by 4″ and has paint that is similar in style to Delta and Charlie in Jurassic World. All of the Papo raptors have a similar sculpt, complete with an articulated jaw and yes, they have sickle claws. This figure has more detail and texture than the recent Hasbro and Mattel raptors, and I think the Papo raptors would make excellent additions to collections. Also, Dan is great to work with, and the shipping was very fast. The figure came in good packaging and was undamaged. Dan’s Dinosaurs is an excellent resource for finding dinosaurs to add to your collection!

If you see something that you have to have, make sure enter “Jurassic Outpost” in the “How did you hear about us?” field during checkout to receive a free bonus gift with your order!

Source: Dan’s Dinosaurs

Comprehensive Visual Guide to Every Jurassic World & Park Dinosaur

The Jurassic Park franchise is home to numerous different dinosaurs species, existing both on screen or simply by name references. The following is a researched canonical guide to the dinosaurs confirmed to exist within the film universe, attempting to identify them by their various species and subspecies, while providing any additional supplementing information such as sex, or film appearance.

Some dinosaurs in the Jurassic franchise showcase prominent sexual dimorphism, creating a visual variation between the males and females of the same species. This guide indicates (m), (f), or (m/f) depending on the sex shown for the animal. If there is no evidence of variation, it is assumed both look the same and there will be no labeling of the animals sex.

Further, some dinosaurs look distinctly different from film to film. These are assumed to be different cloning variations creating distinct subspecies, and are indicated with v#’s once past their initial debut. Single version dinosaurs are not marked with a v# – the distinction is only marked from v#2 and beyond.

Of note, this list includes “prototype genome” dinosaurs. These are the taxidermy dinosaurs on display at Benjamin Lockwood’s estate as seen in Fallen Kingdom. Not much is known about these animals other than they were created in the early years of Jurassic Park, and likely were incomplete genetically, causing failed life cycles and continued research.

Finally, some dinosaurs are mentioned by name only, (such as being listed on park brochures or DNA vials). While some of these dinosaurs later appeared in other films, many did not. Dinosaurs without visual representation will utilize visual information such as toys in place of canonical designs. With that in mind, only dinosaur species mentioned in the films and direct film materials will be acknowledged, and this does not pull from species listed within viral or behind the scenes materials only.

To finalize information in this list, behind the scenes materials were referenced for existing on screen dinosaurs, as were interviews with the filmmakers discussing them. The troves of information available as well as treating the films as a field research assignment is what identified dinosaur sex, subspecies determination, and more.

This guide is only to provide basic information for identifying the species, and does not include the in depth animal profiles which will be available at a later time.

Velociraptor V.1 (m/f)

  • Carnivore – Dromaeosaur
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World
  • Status: Unknown
  • Range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Females present in a semi-uniform color, males with more distinct tiger striping.
  • Velociraptor V.2 (m/f)

  • Carnivore – Dromaeosaur
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Females are a more uniform beige and charcoal color with yellow eyes, red surrounding the socket, males darker with milky lateral stripes, quills on their head, red crests and eyes, and blue surrounding the eye
  • Velociraptor I.B.R.I.S. (V.1.5) (f)

  • Carnivore – Dromaeosaur
  • Status: Survived by Blue only
  • Range: Isla Nublar
  • The ‘raptor squad’ raised by Owen Grady, these custom engineered raptors were designed to obey command. Blue, Charlie, Delta, Echo, and Subject V-2 are the only known examples of this subspecies. Learn more here.
  • Tyrannosaurus Rex (m/f)

  • Carnivore – Tyrannosaurid
  • Status: At least one surviving female known (“Rexy/Roberta”)
  • Range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Jurassic Park 3, Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • Females present in variations of brown coloration; males have more robust skulls and green colored skin.
  • Teratophoneus

  • Carnivore – Tyrannosaurid
  • Status: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (skeletons only)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Dilophosaurus

  • Carnivore – Dilophosaurid
  • Status: Unknown
  • Range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World (dino display), Jurassic World (Hologram), Fallen Kingdom (sound)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Compsognathus

  • Carnivore – Compsognathid
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Sorna and Nublar
  • Seen in: The Lost World, Jurassic Park 3, Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism however subtle variation of color between individuals has been observed
  • Spinosaurus

  • Carnivore – Spinosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/disputed
  • Range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Note: it’s reported the skeleton on main street belongs to the one seen in JP3, however the skull structure is entirely different
  • Ceratosaurus

  • Carnivore – Ceratosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Allosaurus

  • Carnivore – Allosaurid
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Baryonyx

  • Carnivore – Spinosaurid
  • Status: Survived Sibo Eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom, mentioned to have existed prior by name only in Jurassic Park and JP3
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Suchomimus

  • Carnivore – Spinosaurid
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3 and Jurassic World by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Carnotaurus

  • Carnivore – Abelisaurid
  • Status: Survived Sibo Eruption
  • Known Range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Metriacanthosaurus

  • Carnivore – Metriacanthosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park & Jurassic World by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Herrerasaurus

  • Carnivore – Herrerasaurid
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Segisaurus

  • Carnivore – Coelophysid
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Proceratosaurus

  • Carnivore – Tyrannosaurid
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Dimorphodon

  • Carnivore – Pterosaur
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Pteranodon V.1 (“Geosternbergia”)

  • Omnivore/unknown – Pterosaur
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: The Lost World
  • Note: Aviary mentioned in Jurassic Park with Pteranodons – potentially existed on Isla Nublar
  • Sexual dimorphism disputed; possible Geosternbergia crest variation (only seen on early unused production materials and Roland Tembos dino guide). The animal seen in the film features a more typical Pteranodon crest which muddies the exact genus it belongs to or if the other flatter crest is canonical.
  • Pteranodon V.2 (m/f)

  • Carnivore – Pterosaur
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3
  • Females are brown and tan, males are dark blue with yellow crests – males were designed but cut from film
  • Pterandon V.3

  • Carnivore – Pterosaur
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • Alternate crest color variants exist (norm being red), potential sexual dimorphism
  • Mosasaurus (f)

  • Carnivore – Mosasaur
  • Status: Escaped Isla Nublar, alive
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism, one animal only
  • Indominus Rex (hybrid) (f)

  • Carnivore – N/A
  • Status: extinct
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom (skeleton only)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Indoraptor (hybrid) (m)

  • Carnivore – N/A
  • Status: extinct
  • Known range: Lockwood Manor California
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Concavenator (Prototype)

  • Carnivore – Allosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, no known final genome
  • Mononykus (Prototype)

  • Carnivore – Maniraptora
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, no known final genome
  • Note: this is the only known true feathered Jurassic Park dinosaur
  • Dilophosaurus (Prototype)

  • Carnivore – Dilophosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, led to at least one final genome
  • Velociraptor (Prototype)

  • Carnivore – Dromaeosaur
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, led to at least three different final genomes
  • Note: Appears to be direct decedent to V1 Raptors, share similarities to males minus stripes and skewing more orange
  • Dimetrodon (Prototype)

  • Carnivore – Synapsid
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, no known final genome
  • Brachiosaurus V.1 (m/f)

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, Fallen Kingdom
  • Subjects seen in Fallen Kingdom are smaller and stumpier, presenting subtle iridescent green skin around the face and neck. This is believed to be distinctive of male sexual dimorphism.
  • Brachiosaurus V.2 (m/f)

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3
  • Males and females are both variations of green, but males present notable red patches of skin on their face and atop their skull
  • Mamenchisaurus

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: The Lost World
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Apatosaurus

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Dreadnoughtus

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (DNA vials only – sold to Russians)
  • No known sexual dimorphism nor any evidence of living specimens
  • Gallimimus

  • Herbivore – Ornithomimosaur
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Parasaurolophus (m/f)

  • Herbivore – Hadrosaur
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Jurassic Park 3, Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • Males are light brown colors with lateral stripes; females feature similar patterns but green in coloration
  • Edmontosaurus

  • Herbivore – Hadrosaur
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Sorna & Nublar
  • Seen in: The Lost World (skeleton only), Jurassic World (name only)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Corythosaurus

  • Herbivore – Hadrosaur
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Known range: Isla Sorna
  • Seen in: The Lost World (name only), Jurassic Park 3
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Triceratops (m/f)

  • Herbivore – Ceratopsian
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar and Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Jurassic Park 3, Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • Females are a tortoiseshell coloration of greys and slight brown and have more prominent large rounded scutes and scales over their body; males are more solid greys and brown with subtle variations of blue on the face. Adult Triceratops presenting light vertical stripes on their back has been observed on Isla Sorna.
  • Sinoceratops

  • Herbivore – Ceratopsian
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual Dimorphism
  • Microceratus

  • Herbivore – Ceratopsian
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Nublar & Sorna
  • Seen in: Jurassic World (name only)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Ankylosaurus (m/f)

  • Herbivore – Ankylosaur
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Seen in: Jurassic Park 3, Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • Males features red on face, darker armor, and distinct body shape; females are more uniform grey and brown colors
  • Peloroplites

  • Herbivore – Ankylosaur
  • Status: Unknown/reported extinct
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (skeletons only)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Stegosaurus V.1

  • Herbivore – Stegosaurid
  • Status: Unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna, possibly Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: The Lost World, Jurassic Park 3, mentioned in Jurassic Park by name only
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Stegosaurus V.2

  • Herbivore – Stegosaurid
  • Status: Survived Sibo erupton
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Jurassic World, Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Pachycephalosaurus

  • Herbivore – Pachycephalosaurid
  • Status: unknown
  • Known range: Isla Sorna and Nublar
  • Seen in: The Lost World, Jurassic World
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Stygimoloch

  • Herbivore – Pachycephalosaurid
  • Status: Survived Sibo eruption
  • Known range: Isla Nublar
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Stegoceratops (hybrid)

  • Herbivore – N/A
  • Status: disputed
  • Known range: Isla Nublar/disputed
  • Seen in: Jurassic World (computer display only – actual existence disputed)
  • No known sexual dimorphism
  • Diplodocus (Protoype)

  • Herbivore – Sauropod
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, no known final genome
  • Note: specimens on display appear to be juveniles
  • Dracorex (prototype)

  • Herbivore – Pachycephalosaurid
  • Status: Unknown/prototype genome
  • Known range: Unknown
  • Seen in: Fallen Kingdom (taxidermy display)
  • No known sexual dimorphism, no known final genome
  • Note: videogame design not indicative of film design
  • Canon Deep Dive: The Three Subspecies of Velociraptor in Jurassic World and Where to Find Them

    Velociraptor is a species that needs no introduction to Jurassic fans, its identity seared into our imaginations as the ultimate apex predator birthed from InGens labs. However, as prominent as the species of dinosaur is in the Jurassic Park films, it is often shrouded in mystery, and defined by complex behavioral traits.

    During the Hammond era at least one distinct subspecies of Velociraptor was created, and went on to thrive on Isla Nublar & Sorna after the fall of the park. In the Masrani era, a new Velociraptor program was spawned, and it eventually gave birth to many animals, though only four have been featured in the films. The distinctive V.2 subspecies of Velociraptor as seen in Jurassic Park 3’s origin remains undetermined, and could have been created in either era.

    The aim of this article is to take an in-universe look at and identify the many subspecies of Jurassic World Velociraptor, and even attempt to discern what’s left living post the Sibo eruption.

    About


    V.2 male and female Velociraptors

    The Velociraptor of fossil record was a species of dinosauria that lived roughly 75 to 71 million years ago during the latter part of the Cretaceous Period, in and around Mongolia. It was one the first species to be revived by InGen in 1986 through their De-extinction process [Note: Masrani Global initially reported it was the first – their records later changed to say Triceratops was]. They were planned to be exhibited at Jurassic Park before its abandonment but were later revived for Project I.B.R.I.S. as part of a research program to test their intelligence for real-world applications.

    It’s theorized due to drastic physical differences, InGen’s Velociraptor is misidentified, and cloned not from its namesake but rather Deinonychus or Utahraptor.

    There are three distinct variations of Velociraptor which were cloned by InGen, not counting the sexual dimorphism seen within each individual version. However, despite the surface level variations, each sub-species remains relatively similar in terms of physical attributes. Each species is roughly 6 feet tall, 13 feet long and weigh over 350llbs. They’re each covered in taut, leathery skin not unlike that of a Komodo Dragons, with degrees and variation seen between subset and sexes.

    Notably, they feature a 6 inch retractable sickle “killing claw” on the inner toes of each foot, which is one of the animals most signature deadly weapons. While the skull structure varies between each subset, they all feature a pronounced orbital socket with distinct antorbital fenestra ridges. Much like many modern reptiles, these animals mouths were lined with a strong lip structure.


    V.1 female Velociraptor

    Agile and remarkably strong, Velociraptors are incredible jumpers and can reach speeds of up to 50-60mph in the open.

    However, the Velociraptor’s most remarkable attribute is their intelligence and social structure. Purportedly the second most intelligent species on the planet (after mankind), Velociraptor intelligence surpasses that of Chimpanzees and Dolphins. While incredibly aggressive, they are also very social animals with a complex pack dynamic. Like an inverse of a pride of lions, Velociraptors are typically observed with one or a few females leading the pack, with males making up the majority of the population.

    Velociraptors typically stay near their nest, and venture out further to hunt – though they have been observed leaving their territory if they still perceive previous intruders as a threat. Velociraptors are particularly defensive of their nests and eggs. The position of ‘Alpha’ within the pack is a very important part of their dynamic, and is typically respected. However, the animals have been known to fight amongst themselves to earn that spot – and those fights can often prove deadly.

    Each of the three raptor variations seemingly share the same ‘language’, displaying a complex and unique series of screeches, barks, growls and hisses. Further communication methods include general body language, and the tapping of their killing claws.

    Velociraptor Version 1.0

    This subset of Velociraptor is not only the first version of raptor cloned by InGen, but also one of the first ever successful dinosaur species brought back via ‘De-extinction’ in 1986. Version 1.0 is known to exist natively with breeding populations on both Isla Nublar and Isla Sorna.

    Both the males and females have piercing, veiny eyes with vertical pupils and nearly identical physical builds. The largest difference between each sex is colour of their skin and eyes.

  • Female
  • All dinosaurs created for Jurassic Park by InGen were intended to be female, and as such these were the Velociraptor [initially] housed within Isla Nublar.

    The female Velocirapors sport green eyes, with skin that is primarily a muted orangeish brown, with darker brown horizontal speckling and splotching overtop. Their underbelly is a lighter beige color, which transitions to the darker hues the higher it goes up the body.

    The females have very little distinct striping or spotting, and can appear rather uniform in color, resembling gunmetal green until closer, well lit inspection.

    Female V.1 Velociraptors can also be found on Isla Sorna, but they are fewer in each pack than male.

  • Male
  • Natural born male V.1 raptors sport bright yellow eyes with skin more vibrant orange than their female counterparts, and a beige underbelly with less dark splotching overall. They’re easily distinguished from the female packmates as they are covered in vertical dark brown stripes, not entirely unlike that seen in Bengal Tigers.

    When a sex change occurs within the dinosaur population, it remains unclear if their physical coloration changes to match. As Velociraptors were breeding in Jurassic Park, but only the female attributes were observed, it stands to reason only those born male sport the coloration listed above.

    Like their female counterparts, the male v.1 raptors can be found on Sorna, making up the majority of the pack.

    Version 2.0

    The second distinct subset of Velociraptor cloned by InGen, its creation date remains shrouded in mystery. First and only observed on Isla Sorna in 2001, it is wholly possible this subset of raptor was not bred until after Masrani Global took ownership of InGen in 1998. Without further information solidifying this subspecies origins, it remains undetermined.

    The male and female v.2 raptors are much more distinct from one another than their V.1 counterparts, with physical variation ranging from skull shape to colors. Both are made distinct from their v.1 cousins with a more narrow skull, and more pronounced ridge running from the eye socket and tapering prior to the nares, raised above the antorbital fenestra.

  • Female
  • The female V.2 raptors feature bright yellow eyes, with small round pupils. The eye socket is surrounded with a splash of vivid blood red skin, only seen elsewhere around their toes. Their skin is a semi-uniform cream color, with irregular charcoal brown covering its back from skull to tail, following the spine. From the spine there are occasional roughly defined vertical stripes, only slightly extending downward. From their ribs and hips below, small irregular horizontal striping occurs in blotchy patterns, also in the charcoal brown color.

    The females are the clearly alphas of their packs, with only one observed in Jurassic Park 3 commanding a pack of males in their effort to retrieve stolen eggs. They seem to be more cunning than their male counterparts, and more reserved with their actions than their V.1 cousins, less prone to violent outbursts.

  • Male
  • The male V.2 are immediately distinguished by their darker colors, horizontal milky stripe on either side running from skull to tail, striking red eyes with round pupils, and quill like proto-feathers protruding from the rear of their skull. Their skin is primarly a muted fleshy purple, molted with charcoal grey splotching of a similar tone. Their eye sockets are surrounded by vibrant blue skin, and the antorbital fenestra ridge highlighted by a brighter red color – this red can also be seen atop their skull, and around their fingers. Their underbelly is a yellow cream color that is occasionally interjected by the darker grey splotches.

    The males of the pack are often the front line offense, following the command of the alpha female to track down intruders and/or hunt prey. They’re more prone to impulsive outbursts, but have not been observed infighting like their V.1 cousins. Incredibly social, these animals are intelligent and cunning predators that will protect their pack at great lengths.

    The male V.2 raptors are the only Jurassic dinosaurs observed sporting proto-feathers, other than the two hybrids Indominus Rex and Indoraptor.

    I.B.R.I.S. (V1.5)

    I.B.R.S. Velociraptors are in reality the third acknowledged subset of Velociraptor created by InGen 2012. Based upon the V.1 genome (thus V.1.5 labeling), these raptors were custom crafted by Dr. Henry WU for the Integrated Behavioral Raptor Intelligence Study program run by Owen Grady. Each v.1.5 Velociraptor has been programmed with unique, customized DNA.

    Very similar in build and looks to the v.1.0 Velociraptors, v.1.5 are most easily identified by their unique color schemes. Further, they have thicker, more flexible rubbery skin, featuring more visible fleshy tones. Their eyes are yellow-orange with vertical pupils much like v.1.0, however are more translucent and do not have the noteworthy visible vein structures seen in their counterparts.

    While roughly the same size and shape as their v.1.0 predecessors, they are notably stockier with other various differences. There are 4 different V.1.5 raptors, each with their own genetic, physical, and behavioral discrepancies.

    All of the ‘raptor squad’ V.1.5 raptors were bred female, and were born at similar times.

  • Blue
  • Blue is a uniquely modified V.1.5 Velociraptor, infused with DNA from a Black-Throated African Monitor Lizard. She was bred as part of InGen’s Project I.B.R.I.S. and is the sole surviving member, following the Jurassic World incident in December 2015. Blue is the largest and stockiest raptor of the I.B.R.I.S. pack, easily identified by her scute covered face and striking blue stripe.

    Blue’s face is similar in shape to V.1.0 raptors, but is wider with a over sloping rear orbital socket crest and a small ridge running down the top middle of her skull. Her nasal cavities are more forward facing and pronounced due to the additional width of her skull. Her unique scute coverage is most pronounced on her orbital ridge, lower jaw hinge, top rear of the skull, and run down the back and sides of her neck. Her body shape is very close to that of the V.1.0 raptors, but stockier with a less pronounced muscle and skeletal structure.

    Blue’s color consists mainly of greys and desaturated fleshy tones, with inconsistent splotches of darker greys highlighting the top of her scales. Her most notable color feature is her asymmetrical lateral stripe which starts at each eye, and runs down the the sides of her body. The stripes are almost black dark blue color, which have a iridescent sheen that gives off a lighter blue appearance. Each stripe is highlighted with white at its edges, making it stand out even more.

    Blue is the Alpha of her pack, and was a uniquely thoughtful and empathetic animal since birth. These traits allowed her to not only take command of the pack of her peers, but to work with Owen, trusting him, and extending her familial circle to include him. These unique traits are hardwired into her DNA and are not currently present in any other Velociraptor, living or dead.

  • Charlie (deceased)
  • Charlie is a uniquely modified V.1.5 Velociraptor, infused with DNA from a Green Iguana. She was bred as part of InGen’s Project I.B.R.I.S. and was the first ‘Raptor Squad’ casualty during the Jurassic World incident in December 2015.

    Charlie is a slimmer member of the raptor pack, identifiable by her light green color with dark green vertical stripes.

    Charlies’s skull structure is most similar to Delta featuring the raised ridge on her snout, but is slightly wider like her other V.1.5 sisters. Her nasal cavities are more forward facing and pronounced due to the additional width of her skull. Like her peers, her body shape is very close to that of the V.1.0 raptors, but slightly stockier with a less pronounced muscle and skeletal structure.

    Charlie’s color mainly consists of hues of light grass and asparagus greens with a cream underbelly, and dark vertical stripes. The stripes are a dark jade green with thin light cream highlights, starting at the base of the skull and neck, running the length of her body and tail.

    The youngest member of the raptor pack, Charlie was the final V.1.5 I.B.R.I.S. raptor born sometime after 2012. Charlie is the least seasoned of the pack, and youthfully inconsistent and unpredictable with her actions. However, Charlie was deeply loyal to Blue, constantly looked to her for leadership, and has been known to even give up her food for her. As such, Charlie also looks to Owen for guidance, but is confused over his place in the pack.

    Charlie, often chipper and overly enthusiastic, would accidentally smack other members of the pack with her tail causing frustration amongst her peers.

  • Delta (deceased)
  • Delta is a uniquely modified V.1.5 Velociraptor, infused with the most Avian DNA out of the pack. She was bred as part of InGen’s Project I.B.R.I.S. and was the second ‘Raptor Squad’ casualty during the Jurassic World incident in December 2015.

    Delta is identifiable by her darker green color, and pronounced antorbital fenestra ridges not unlike those seen in V.2.0 males.

    Her skull structure is similar to V.1.0 raptors, but is slightly wider and with more defined crests between her nasal cavities and eye sockets akin to V2 Raptors. Her nostrils are more forward facing and pronounced due to the additional width of her skull. Like her peers, her body shape is very close to that of the V.1.0 raptors, though more lean than Blue.

    Deltas’s color is darker than Charlies, mainly consisting of mostly jade and some rainforest green hues leading to a fern green underbelly. Her skin is darkest on the top of her body, and sides of her arms and legs. Unlike Charlie, she does not have any prominent striping, but has distinguished teal coloration around her eyes.

    There were some reports that Delta had unique eyes, with Gecko like pupils – however, evidence suggests otherwise as her eyes look the same as her packmates.

    The second eldest member of the raptor pack, Delta was born sometime after 2012. Always loyal to Blue, she often led coordinated attacks pushing prey into ambushes. Delta was incredibly intelligent, with thoughtful birdlike behavior and quick movements. While loyal to her Alpha, she was a proficient hunter and capable of strong independent decision making.

  • Echo (deceased)
  • Echo was a V.1.5 Velociraptor who’s unique DNA attributes were not cataloged. She was bred as part of InGen’s Project I.B.R.I.S. and was the final ‘Raptor Squad’ casualty during the Jurassic World incident in December 2015.

    Echo is similar in build to Charlie, and shares the most similarities to V.1.0 raptors out of the pack.

    Echo’s skull structure is most similar to the V.1.0 raptors, but is slightly wider like her other V.1.5 sisters. Her nostrils are more forward facing and pronounced due to the additional width of her skull. Like her peers, her body shape is very close to that of the V.1.0 raptors, yet less defined.

    Her fleshy pink facial scar retained from fighting with Blue gives her a unique sneer, earning the nickname ‘Elvis’ from paddock workers.

    Echo appears orangeish brown in color, with a cream underbelly, and dark vertical stripes similar to Charlies. Her stripes are a dark blue and black in coloration, with an iridescent blue sheen. Less defined than Charlies stripes, hers are met with dark splotching abroad, blending more naturally with the orange hue below.

    The second youngest member of the raptor pack, Echo was bred into the V.1.5 I.B.R.I.S. program sometime after 2012. Echo is the least obedient of the pack, and can often act selfishly despite her acceptance of Blue’s leadership. She often will not wait for commands, and attack, hunt and eat food when the opportunity presents itself.

    Her stubborn independence, and reluctance to follow leadership led to her challenging Blue for command of the pack. Blue did not kill echo, but did leave her with permanent scars across her face. After that, Echo no longer challenged leadership but still acted in her own interest at times.

  • Rejected specimens
  • The I.B.R.I.S. project saw many attempts at breeding raptors prior to success, and while InGen successfully created unique Velociraptors, the subjects were rejected from the program due to aberrant and aggressive behavior.

    One such animal was subject V-2, and early V.1.5 raptor who was rejected due to her aggressive behavior, as evidenced by her scars on her mouth. Her look is near identical to that of female V.1 raptors, only with slight color variation including vibrant light blue skin interweaving more prominent padding. It’s been presumed V-2 was euthanized, however that seems to go against Owen Grady and Masrani’s ethical code, and it’s possible she was relocated on Nublar, Sorna, or somewhere else entirely.

    Hunting

    Velociraptors are pack hunters, and often work to surround and ambush their prey, taking them by surprise. Numerous hunting patterns have been observed, from the coordinated ambush in the long grass as seen during the 1997 Sorna incident, to the distract and flanking maneuver executed to kill Robert Muldoon on Isla Nublar in 93.

    Velociraptors rely on their quick, quiet, and athletic maneuverability to get close to their prey before pouncing, gripping their preys face or neck with their mouth, and latching on to their chest and belly with their talons, tearing with their deadly sickle claws. Once Velociraptors have their prey in their sights, they will stop at nothing to hunt them down (even losing their organized hunting patterns), tracking them over treacherous terrain, and following them into hard to navigate structure when needed.

    null

    The eating habits of Velociraptor once making a successful kill have not been observed, though it’s likely they share the meals with numerous members of the pack by established hierarchy. Carcasses of prey and remains of uneaten food have not been observed by Velociraptor nests, suggesting they feed on the field, not bringing the meals back to their territory as not to attract other predatorial animals to where their young are situated. As such, adult Velociraptors may even regurgitate food like modern birds to feed their babies, though this remains entirely speculative.

    Nests and Breeding

    Velociraptors are territorial animals, who establish nests rarely left out of sight. As they congregate in large packs, their nests often contain numerous broods of young from multiple parents, arranged on the ground in circular clutches. The entire pack is dedicated to caring for the young, as led by the alpha females.

    Both V.1 and V.2 Velociraptors have been observed with nests in the wild on Nublar and Sorna respectively. Dr. Alan Grant made the discovery that the dinosaurs of Jurassic Park were capable of changing sex and breeding when he discovered the semi-recently hatched Velociraptor nest at the foot of large trees on Nublar. These distinct oval shaped eggs were surrounded by the the unique two toed pad prints caused by the raptors walking with their killing claw raised.

    The V.2 egg nests are slightly more defined, housed in raised rounded mud mounds, surround by soft foliage such as grass. Multiple clutches were kept near one another, and while the nest was left alone long enough for humans to encroach on its territory and steal two eggs, raptors clearly observed the theft and took great pains to safely return the eggs home once tracked down.

    The mating patterns of Velociraptor have yet to be observed, though there is likely some form of hierarchy which determines which males can mate with whom, as observed in many modern animals. This is further evidenced by the males sporting more vibrant colors, likely to attract their mates, while the females sport more practical colors for camouflage.

    Whether or not crossbreeding can occur between the different subspecies has yet to be determined, though it stands to reason that their DNA is close enough to allow mating between the clans. Whether or not this has actually occurred, or what these naturally occurring hybrid animals would look like remains unknown. As Isla Sorna has not been seen since 2001, nor its wild dinosaur populations, it is very possible a new version of raptor now exists from the two subspecies fighting, interacting and even mating over time.


    Raptor tribes collide in this fan art by Raph Lomotan

    Survivors?

    The status of the Velociraptors post the 2018 Mt. Sibo eruptions remains uncertain. Reports released by the Dinosaur Protection Group suggest Isla Sorna is abandoned, without any animals left on the island. I however remain unconvinced by the veracity of that report, as similar reports released by the DPG had easily refutable discrepancies. This seems to be the case of shoddy record keeping by Ingen, and even more likely, the company being misleading about their assets for liability purposes.

    It seems entirely unlikely that no dinosaurs remain on Isla Sorna, even if their populations had been effected by relocation, poaching, and famine. Further, it is entirely possible animals were illegally relocated off island prior to the Lockwood incident of Nublar, including members of the various wild raptor populations.

    Finally, while Blue was the last remaining Velociraptor on Isla Nublar belonging to the I.B.R.I.S. tribe, it was never confirmed she was the only raptor on that island. As we know wild raptors were breeding on the island during and after the fall of Jurassic Park, it is very possible remnants persisted in the restricted zone even after Jurassic World was constructed. When the volcanic eruption of Mt. Sibo caused cataclysmic damage to Nublar in 2018, that damage seemed to be reserved for the northern half of the island. While the living conditions may be dire, it is entirely possible populations of dinosaur persisted on Nublar post that new extinction level event.

    Blue may be the only known Velociraptor persisting at this time, roaming Northern California, but it’s likely she has other packmates waiting to be discovered elsewhere in the world.

    After all, life finds a way.


    Jurassic World Alive App Is Here!

    There’s a dinosaur in our backyard…
     

    Jurassic World Alive is a new app that is sure to grab every dino lover’s attention. In the app, you are a member of the Dinosaur Protection Group (DPG), and you are on a mission to save the dinosaurs. Much like Pokemon Go, you explore your surroundings in search of dinosaurs. Once you track down a dinosaur, you pilot a drone and collect DNA samples from them. You can create normal dinosaurs, or pretend you’re Henry Wu and make some hybrids! After assembling a team of dinosaurs, you then head over to the battle area and face off against other players. Prizes for winning include (but aren’t limited to): coins, DNA samples, and darts for DNA collecting.

    The app is now available for Android on Google Play, and for iOS in the App Store. Start hunting those dinos!

     
    As mentioned above, this game is similar to Pokemon Go in a lot of ways. The game uses your location for placement of dinosaurs and supply drops, and it has warnings about being safe while playing (thanks, Owen!). The drone/firing the darts can take a little getting used to, but the controls seem very responsive. All the dinosaurs in the game have profiles that detail their battle stats, which you need to pay attention to once you step into the battle area. They start you out in the Fallen Kingdom arena, and there are different battle arenas that unlock as you win more battles! Battles get more exciting as you level up you dinos (by gathering more DNA), and mixing up your team combinations. Unlike Pokemon Go, supply drops are not always at landmarks, and they appear more frequently in suburban/rural areas.

    Jurassic World: Alive also has a fun AR feature, allowing you to bring the dinosaurs you’ve captured to life in the real world via your phones camera. This creates a fun photo and video opportunity many fans are already taking advantage of!

    Have you played Jurassic World Alive yet? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!